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BULGARIAN IS OFFICIALLY SPOKEN IN BULGARIA

 

 

1. INTRODUCTION. All languages evolve with time. Due to migrations, or for other reasons, a single language can evolve into a whole family of related languages. The branch of linguistics, responsible for the classification of the world’s languages into families, is called comparative philology. Languages within a single family can diverge into different branches of languages. Still they remain related to a single ancestor from which they developed. Alternatively, languages can become interrelated for reasons of geographical closeness. Languages within one family share common grammatical and lexical features. The most widely studied and researched family of languages is the Indo-European. Indo-European languages are spoken on both the European continent and the Indian sub-continent, as well as in Iran (Persia). Some of the world’s most important languages belong to this group: English, Spanish, French, German and Russian, Portuguese). Other important languages in this group, spoken by millions of speakers, are Portuguese, Hindi, Urdu and Bengali. Branches within the Indo-

European language family include the  following:

 

- The Anatolian branch (includes the now extinct Hittite and Lydian)

- The Armenian or Thracian branch (includes Armenian)

- The Baltic branch (includes Latvian and Lithuanian, as well as the now extinct Old Prussian)

- The Celtic branch (includes Breton, Welsh, Scottish & Irish Gaelic, as well as the now extinct Cornish, Gaulish, Manx and Cumbrian)

- The Germanic branch (includes the following Germanic languages: English, German, Frisian, Dutch, Flemish, Afrikaans, Swedish, Danish, Norwegian, Icelandic, Faeroese and Yiddish)

- The Greek (or Hellenic) branch (includes Modern Greek, as well as the now extinct older forms of Greek)

- The Illyric branch (includes Albanian)

- The Indo-Aryan or Indic branch (includes

Hindi, Nepali, Urdu, Bengali, Punjabi, Marathi, Gujarati, Oriya, Marathi, Singhalese, as well as

the now extinct Sanskrit language)

- The Italic (also called Latin or Romance) branch (includes Italian,

French, Provencal, Rhaeto-Romanic, Spanish, Catalan,

Portuguese and Romanian) - The Iranian branch (includes modern Persian, also called Farsi or Iranian, Kurdish, Pashto, Baluchi and Tadjik, as well as the now extinct Old Persian)

 

- The Slavic branch (includes Bulgarian, Macedonian, Serbian,

 

 

 

Croatian, Bosnian, Slovenian or Slovene, Czech, Slovak, Polish, Sorbian, Russian, Ukrainian and Byelorussian).

 

2. BULGARIAN LANGUAGE. The Bulgarian language, official language of Bulgaria, is spoken by more than 9.2 million people around the world (7.7 million in Bulgaria itself). Language facts (1986): 7,986,000 in Bulgaria, 85% of the population (1986); 234,000 in Ukraine; 30,000 in Greece; 10,439 in Romania; 270,000 in Turkey; 361,000 in Moldova (1979 census). It is part of the Slavic branch of languages and as such, is closely related to the other Slavic languages (see above). Together with Serbian, Croatian, Bosnian and Slovenian, it forms the South Slavic group of the Slavic language. Like Serbian and Russian, Bulgarian uses the Cyrillic alphabet. Some consider Macedonian a dialect of Bulgarian, but this is a highly charged political issue hotly disputed by others. Macedonian is so close to the Bulgarian that people in those two countries can understand each other without the necessity of translation, much as Serbs and Croats do. Bulgarians regard Macedonian as a strain of their own language, while Macedonians insist it is a separate language. In Bulgaria itself it is spoken and understood by virtually the entire population. Some 15% of the country’s population (minority groups like Turks, Gypsies and Armenians) is considered to be essentially bilingual.

 

3. IMPORTANT FEATURES. Bulgarian belongs to the Slavic branch of the Indo-European languages and has played an important part in their historical development. Old Bulgarian, also called Old Church Slavonic, has helped propel the Slavic languages literarily. It was considered one of the three major literary languages of Europe during the Middle Ages. When the scholarly brothers Cyril and Methodius devised the first Slavic alphabet in the 9th century, it was first adapted by Bulgarian. Bulgarian has already at an earlier stage lost its case endings. Modern-day Bulgarian has no case forms, unlike its sister languages (Serbian, Russian, Polish etc.). Another grammatical feature that makes it unique among the Slavic languages is that it has a definite article that comes after the noun (as in the Scandinavian languages). For example: universitet  (university) becomes universiteta (the university), kniga (book) becomes knigata (the book).

 

BULGARIAN LANGUAGE ONLINE

Premium Language Sites

 

GENERAL INFO

Bulgarian Language

InfoPlease encyclopedia article.

Bulgarian Language

General info on Bulgarian.

Bulgarian Alphabet & Orthography

Comprehensive information about the Bulgarian language and its origins. Bulgarian pronunciation guide.

The Complete Guide to the Bulgarian Cyrillic Alphabet

Click here for some additional info about Bulgarian.

Simple Bulgarian Phrases

Here you can learn some basic Bulgarian phrases.

Elementary Online Bulgarian Grammar

The Alphabet, basic spelling rules, phonetic rules, parts of speech: nouns, pronouns, adjectives, verbs. System of tenses.

Morphological analysis of the Bulgarian sentence

Enter a Bulgarian sentence.

Cyrillic Fonts on the Internet

Downloadable.

Download Cyrillic Fonts

KREDOR - Bulgarsk latinsk til kyrillisk konvertor

Converte Bulgarian (Cyrillic) into Bulgarian (Latin) and vice versa.

 

BULGARIAN ONLINE DICTIONARIES

English-Bulgarian Bulgarian-English Dictionary

SA Dictionary at News.bg.

SA Dictionary Download Page

Hot! Download SA Dictionary 2002 Professional.

Ectaco English-Bulgarian Dictionary Online

Free online dictionary, translates to and from English.

 

 

 

Rechnik: Bulgarian Dictionary

This is a free community service, for fair use only.

Expert English-Bulgarian & Bulgarian English Dictionary

More than 200,000 definitions, tens of thousands of phrases. Downloadable file.

Bulgarian-English Dictionary

Plovdiv University’s Bulgarian dictionary.

The Bulgarian Rechnik

The Bulgarian RECHNIK contains 2,365 common words and expressions in 6 languages - Bulgarian, English, Spanish, French, Portuguese, & Italian.

English-Bulgarian Talking Dictionary

Buy Ectaco’s Bulgarian electronic dictionary.

Handheld Dictionary: Language Teacher

Once again, it’s Ectaco… Check it out!

The Alternative Bulgarian Dictionary: Long list of 6 (six!) Bulgarian swear words, nasty slang expressions, insults, profanities and vulgarisms.

 

ART & CULTURE

Bulgarian Art

Bulgarian fine arts, applied arts, photography, icons, art galleries, theatre, architecture.

Art BG Gallery

Online art & artifacts gallery.

Vassil Karloukovski’s Bulgarian & Macedonian Page

History of the Proto-Bulgarians. The Proto-Bulgarian language, vocabulary & grammar. Thracian culture.

The Thracian Language & the Indo-European family of languages

Thracian words, vocabulary, inscriptions

Welkya International Web Magazine

Web Magazine for art & culture.

LIK Magazine

Literature, art & culture digest.

Liternet

Bulgarian archive of literature & the humanities, online bookstore & library.

Bulgarian Music Guide

Bulgarian artists, composers, producers

 

BULGARIAN TRANSLATORS

Bulgarian Text Solutions

Multiple language translators: professional translations between English, French, German, Swedish, Danish, Norwegian, Chinese, Dutch and Bulgarian.

Bulgarian Translator

International providers of Bulgarian translations to and from various languages.

Vlaiko Boyadzhiev, Translator & Interpreter

Oslo-based English-Bulgarian-Norwegian translator.

Bulgarian Language Service

Bulgarian translator. Quality translations English to Bulgarian to Norwegian to English.

Bulgarsk interpreter

Tolker bulgarsk i Oslo-regionen.

Bulgarian translator

Oversetter bulgarsk-norsk.

Network of Bulgarian Interpreters

Need a Bulgarian interpreter? Bulgarian interpretation services.

 

LEARN TO SPEAK BULGARIAN

Learn Bulgarian: Private Tuition Lessons

Bulgarian taught in Oslo, Norway.

Teach Yourself Bulgarian

Recommended book: learn Bulgarian at home.

A Short Grammar of Contemporary Bulgarian

By Kjetil Rå Hauge, Oslo University.

Bulgarian Taught as a Subject at the University of Oslo, Norway

Bulgarsk som fag ved Universitetet i Oslo.

 

BULGARIAN PHRASE BOOKS AT TRAVLANG

English-Bulgarian Phrases (Български за пътуващи)

Travlang’s quick fix phrase-finder: English.

Bulgarian-English Phrases (English for Travelers)

Travlang’s quick fix phrase-finder: Bulgarian.

Bulgarsk-norsk parlør (Norsk til reisebruk)

Travlang’s quick fix phrase-finder: bulgarsk.

Norsk-bulgarsk parlør (Български за пътуващи)

Travlang’s quick fix phrase-finder: norsk.

German-Bulgarian Phrases (Български за пътуващи)

Travlang’s quick fix phrase-finder: Deutsch.

Bulgarian-German Phrases (Deutsch für Reisende)

Travlang’s quick fix phrase-finder: German.

Danish-Bulgarian Phrases (Български за пътуващи)

Travlang’s quick fix phrase-finder: dansk.

Swedish-Bulgarian Phrases (Български за пътуващи)

Travlang’s quick fix phrase-finder: svenska.

Dutch-Bulgarian Phrases (Български за пътуващи)

Travlang’s quick fix phrase-finder: nederlands.

 

BULGARIAN BOOKSTORES

Bulgarian Online Bookstore

Buy Bulgarian books online.

Bulgarian Books & Courses

Multilingual Books.

Bulgarian Book Section at Amazon.com

Bulgarian book mail order catalog.

 

BULGARIAN NEWS ONLINE, NEWSPAPERS

Mediapool (Bulgarian)

Standart (Bulgarian, English)

Dnevnik (Bulgarian)

Novinar (Bulgarian)

News-bg.com (Bulgarian)

Capital (Bulgarian)

Novoto vreme (Bulgarian, English)

NetInfo (Bulgarian)

Bulgaria Online (Bulgarian)

Bulgarian News Agency (Bulgarian, English)

Bulgarian TV (Bulgarian)

BBC (Bulgarian language news service)

Maritza Plovdiv (Bulgarian)

Kultura (Bulgarian)

Bulgaria Online (English)

Bulgarian NewsScan (English)

 

OTHER LINKS

Bulgaria on the Internet

A links portal.

Bulgaria.com

The first Bulgarian portal.

The Macedonian language = Bulgarian with Serbian Letters

The collapse of Yugoslavia & the future prospects of the Macedonian literary language.

 

Updated 11.11.2004     

                  

 

 

 

 

 

 

WRITING SAMPLES OF BULGARIAN WORDS

 

 

 

ENGLISH

------------------------

alphabet

book

bye

Bulgaria

Bulgarian

cat

chair

day

dictionary

English

good evening

good morning

good night

greetings

hello

literature

mother

Norway

page

pencil

radio

read

sea

services

Sofia

son

town

translation

translations

translators

university

write

written

 

 

BULGARIAN

--------------------------------

азбука

книга

чао

България

български

котка

стол

ден

речник

английски

добър вечер

добро утро

лека нощ

поздрави

здравей

литература

майка

Норвегия

страница

молив

радио

чета

море

услуги

София

син

град

превод

преводи

преводачи

университет

пиша

писмен

 

PRONUNCIATION

-----------------------------------------

´azbuka

´kniga

chao

Bal´garia

´balgarski

´kotka

stol

den

´rechnik

an´gliiski

´dober ´vecher

do´bro ´utro

´leka ´nosht

´pozdravi

zdra´vey

litera´tura

´mayka

Nor´vegia

´stranitsa

´moliv

´radio

che´ta

mo´re

us´lugi

´Sofia

sin

grad

´prevod

´prevodi

prevo´dachi

universi´tet

´pisha

´pismen

 

 

 

 

 

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